Three mistakes in modern physics
At the end of the 16 th century the telescope was invented in Europe. In the 17th century Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and others, the age of celestial observation developed rapidly. In 1543, Copernicus advocated the theory of revolution in " On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres ". But yet the times were before the dawn of science, the church did not admit the theory of the theory. Kepler announced Kepler's law in 1609 " Astronomia nova ", the next year Galileo will publish " Sidereus Nuncius ". In nearly a century from Copernicus, the pressure of the church has been unable to suppress the quest for inquiry. There, in 1637, Descartes appeared, introducing ' Discours de la méthode '. It was an epoch-making idea of seeing phenomena in the natural world in relation to things and things. The idea of revolutionizing the church 's authoritarianism, metaphysical nature' s perspective from the ground up shone. The era will push forward to the scientific revolution at once. Descartes' mechanistic thought was accepted by astronomers and scientific noblemen of those days.
Astronomical observations were performed vigorously, but since the telescope was not on the market as it is now, the astronomers had to assemble themselves. It was the first step towards observation of astronomical observation that self-made telescope that I can see well. Galileo built a telescope about twenty times as much as I made himself and made astronomical observations. In the observation of Galileo, the orbit of the planet was thought to be drawing a circle almost. It seems that Galileo thought that the planet was operating under the support of a stick. When Kepler calculated the orbit of Mars, it turned out to draw an ellipse instead of a circle. Kepler also thought that the planet was located at the top of the polyhedron at the beginning and was moving with certain rules. It is different from the image that spinning around the sun as it is now. Kepler clearly handled gravity and repulsion (repulsion) when the two planets moved. However, when this becomes Newton, the repulsion disappears somewhere.
Newton's gravitation was two groundbreaking discoveries: gravity equally acts in all places, gravity is a force proportional to the quantity of things. But the former had no grounds. Applying ground attraction to the moon trajectory calculation, it was only by chance that close numbers were obtained. Gravity acts equally in all places, the influence of God Newton has believed is great. It was reasoning from Kepler's law that gravity is proportional to the quantity of things. It is said that this will produce gravity later on. Newton seems to have learned the idea of gravity with the exchange of letters with Hook. It is pointed out that the idea is stolen from hook.
When Newton announces universal gravitation, it is criticized by Leibniz of Germany. This was due to the controversial interest of the integral method, but Newton's attraction is nonlocal interaction that is transmitted instantaneously, contradicting the Descartes methodology at the time, meaning the introduction of the power of God. The power that is transmitted instantaneously without intervention was an unacceptable idea at that time. This criticism leads further to Kant.
Kant describes the formation of the universe in the "principle of natural philosophy", but criticizes Newton's universal gravitation which is told only by attraction in a theory which later becomes the theory of nebula. If it is only gravitation, the universe will become one chunk. He pointed out the drawback of universal gravitation as repulsive force is not a distant force.
For Kant, attraction and repulsion occupied the same position in the universe. Perhaps it was considered common sense of philosophers and astronomers in the first half of the 17th and 18th centuries. In the early nineteenth century, Hegel wrote that criticism of Kant 's Newton in' Enzyklopaedie der philosophischen Wissenschaften 'was due to Kant' s lack of understanding. In the era of Hegel, the repulsive force had already disappeared from the universe.
It was the experiment that Cavendish did in 1798 that erased the repulsive force. The experiment of Cavendish was to weigh the earth, but it was assumed that the mass would produce gravity. The force with which 700 grams and 160 kg of lead balls attracted was measured with a torsion balance. As a result, the weight of the earth was set to 5.4 times the specific gravity of water. This was later used to determine the gravitational constant. The experiment of Cavendish is said to have proved that mass produces gravity. He strongly affirmed Newton's universal gravitation. Because Hegel knew this experiment, he probably criticized Kant. Even without knowing, common sense of the world might have changed.
Prior to the creation of electromagnetism in the 19th century Newton's universal gravitation was common sense. The gravity of the earth and the universe are the same, the mass produces gravity, these two are embedded in the root of modern science. In the nineteenth century was also the century in which geoscience rapidly developed from geology. Lyel, a foundation from Sir Kelvin to Wegener of Continental Movement Theory was created.
In the 19th century, great experimenter Faraday appears. Faraday was a bookbinding craftworker, but he began to engage in scientific research as an experimental assistant at the Royal Society. Because he did not receive higher education, almost no mathematical formula came out in the paper written by Faraday. But Faraday laid the foundation for current electromagnetism, including electromagnetic induction. Maxwell was the mathematical expression of the achievements of Faraday's experiments.
The difference in age between Maxwell and Faraday is 40 years old. When Faraday is 64 years old, Maxwell 24 years old formulated Faraday's electric lines of force for the first time. However, this mathematical electric line of force was quite different from the image of Faraday. Faraday's electric lines of force were images of the power that plus and minus force exerts straightforward power. Maxwell, however, had positive and negative lines of force containing the effect of neutralizing each other halfway. In other words, Faraday's electric lines of force act separately on objects as plus and minus, and the resultant forces inside the object appear as a result, but Maxwell neutralizes the electric lines of force and adds and subtracts them I tried to do it. For the resultant force in the object, it may be because the mathematical formula becomes complicated. It is the same reason Newton eliminated the repulsive force. It is said that it imaged from the transfer of heat.
Actually, Maxwell was doing the task of sorting experiment notes of Cavendish at that time. Whether Cavendish's experiment was told from Maxwell to Faraday is unknown. But Faraday suddenly begins gravity experiment after meeting Maxwell. The aim was to drop the specially made coil from top to bottom and ascertain the existence of the current that should be making gravity. Faraday realized that gravity is electromagnetic force.
Lead used in the experiment of Cavendish was diamagnetic. Paramagnetic materials such as iron and diamagnetic substances have properties that they can bounce magnetic field lines when placed in a magnetic field. Also, if the S pole of the magnet is brought closer to it, it is magnetized to the same S pole. It has properties opposite to those of paramagnetic substances. Faraday discovered that lead is diamagnetic. Perhaps when I learned about the experiment of Cavendish, did not Faraday notice the action of lead placed in the earth's magnetic field? In this experiment I felt that a strong electromagnetic force of 10 ^ 38 of gravity is acting. The experiment of Cavendish is wrong, the mass does not produce gravity.
Figure 50: View of induced currents caused by falling coils at the auditorium of the Royal Institute Measurement The coil (n) picked up by the pulley is covered up to the galvanometer at the center on the left side It is connected with copper wire (m). Then put the coil in the lower right cushion (O) and made an experiment. from "Forces, Powers and Particles in Faraday’s Researches in Electromagnetism"Kenichi Natsume
Faraday tried to prove by gravitational force that the gravity is electromagnetism many times, but it eventually failed. But "This is the end of my present attempt, the result is negative.These results do not shake my strong premonition that there is a relationship between gravity and electricity, but that We have not given any evidence that such relationship exists. " The current Faraday tried to detect existed. At the present time, very weak current called atmospheric current has been discovered. Atmospheric current is only 1 picoamperes per square meter. It is a weak current that can not be detected by instruments at that time. Faraday's premonition was not wrong.
Let's summarize the main points. There are three unproven laws mixed in the foundation that made the present science.
- The ground attraction and the universe's gravity are the same (elimination of repulsive force)
- Mass produces gravity
- Neutralize electric flux lines
These three are complicatedly intertwined and continue to exert a huge influence on physics and earth science. From 1 and 2, the theory of relativity was born. Current mainstream Big Bang cosmology is under its influence. The experiment of Cavendish 2 is the foundation of earth science as it is. The electric line of force 3 made Bohr's atomic model, and it gave birth to quantum mechanics.
Modern science is established on Newton 's mistake, Maxwell' s misunderstanding.
- "Power, Power and Particles in Faraday's Electromagnetism Study" Kenichi Natsume
- "Robert Hook Newton's Man Who Disappeared" Hideto Nakajima
- "What light and electromagnetic Faraday and Maxwell thought" Keita Oyama
- Wikipedia "Experiment of Cavendish"
- Wikipedia "Kepler's problem"
- Wikipedia "universal gravitation"