Light travels through particles
In the 17th century, Descartes argued that science should describe nature in relation to things and objects. Space and Field that are used in modern physics are not objects. No ether has been observed. I explained the propagation of light by only the observed things and phenomena. The cause that light has the properties of particles and waves was in propagation.
According to Maxwell's equation, the electric field and the magnetic field are equivalent. When a force is applied to the electric charge, the electric field changes and a magnetic field is generated. But will electric fields arise when the magnetic field changes? In Faraday's electromagnetic induction, an electric field is generated because the magnetic field moves the electrons in the copper wire. The electric field and the magnetic field are not equivalent.
- electric field -> magnetic field
- magnetic field -> move charged particles -> electric field
Light is a group of radio waves. When discharging with high voltage applied, light and radio waves are generated. Discharge generates a pulse of electric field. Discharge is a phenomenon that electrons move while accelerating. The electric field changes by electron acceleration. Pulses of the electric field are light and radio waves.
Then, how will the pulse of the generated electric field fly? There are 6 × 10 ^ 23 molecules per 22.4 L in the air. Electric field pulses are transmitted through a large amount of molecules. Even in the vacuum universe, there are several protons and electrons per cubic centimeter.
There are enormous numbers of molecules in the atmosphere, but there are gaps. Air molecules have an average distance of not more than 68 nm on average. 68 nm is about 1000 times the size of the atom. There is nothing in between. However, the pulses of the electric field travel between the particles and the particles.
Here, we are forced to make the same judgment as Newton. Newton thought that the universal gravitational forces that work between the planets will travel away for a moment. Newton assumed that universal gravitation is a nonlocal interaction. We also need to recognize that the pulse of the electric field is transmitted through the particle gap by nonlocal interaction.
Particles that are pulsed by the electric field will vibrate and regenerate the electric field. There are two features to regenerating pulses of the electric field. In the experiment conducted at ISS, it is observed that the shocked polka dots convey the shock to the opposite side. If the regeneration of the pulses of the electric field is done in all directions of the particle, the light does not go straight.
Secondly, regeneration of the electric field takes a little time. If the re-generation of the electric field occurs in an instant, the speed of the light will also be infinite. Light is transmitted by a combination of two phenomena of regeneration of electric field by particles and nonlocal interaction between particles. Therefore, in the atmosphere with many particles, the speed of light is 300,000 kilometers per second. If you go into the sparse universe of particles, the speed of light will be faster.
The question that the speed of light is not constant has already been pointed out in mainstream science. In this article, re-radiation of electromagnetic waves by particles in outer space is also mentioned.
In particular, "RADAR TESTING RELATIVE VELOCITY OF LIGHT IN SPACE" issued in 1969 indicates that the light velocity in outer space is C + V.
Using this new light advancing method, you can easily explain the red shift. When the light advances from the dense star around the interstellar material to the sparsely intergalactic interstellar material, the wavelength is stretched. The redshift was made by the difference in concentration of interstellar matter.
In the photoelectric effect, when light is irradiated on a metal surface, a large amount of free electrons present inside receive a light energy and it is said to pop out. Interestingly, no matter how much infrared light of long wavelength is applied, electrons do not pop out. When ultraviolet rays with a short wavelength are obtained, electrons are ejected one after another. If the energy of light is received by electrons and the energy rises and comes out, it will suffice to apply infrared light for a long time, but as long as the wavelength is long it will be useless.
Consider the case where one pulse of electric field comes to electrons. The pulse is +. As + comes, electrons are minus, so they are pulled and move. However, when the pulse passes, it is pulled back to the opposite side. The movement of electrons at this time reproduces the pulses of the electric field. In other words, it propagates.
How about next the pulse interval becomes narrower? The interval between these pulses is merely an image and does not show a specific distance. If the interval is narrow, electrons are affected by pulses in a short time. It will be shaken violently. It is expected that electrons will be flew away from the place as the tremor becomes bigger. This is the photoelectric effect.
Further, there is a phenomenon that the width of the pulse applied to electrons becomes longer. Compton scattering is a phenomenon that the wavelength of some X rays becomes long when X rays are applied to electrons. It happens because energy is taken by electrons. It is considered to be a phenomenon expressing the particle nature of X-rays.
According to the wikipedia, experiments of Compton scattering were done by placing X - rays on graphite. On the surface of graphite there are electrons on the nuclear orbital, unlike metals. It is an electron bound by the coulomb force of the nucleus. When an electric field pulse is applied to this electron, the electron moves so as to shake the ball connected to the spring. Since the electrons can suppress the vibration due to the spring called Coulomb force, the movement of the electrons becomes dull and the pulse of the re-generated electric field extends the interval.
The X-rays striking the nucleus in the back are re-generated as they are, so the wavelength does not change.It will be possible to explain Compton scattering without recognizing particle properties in X rays. The reason why light has both particle and wave properties has been characterized by the propagation method.