C14 decays to N14
Carbon 14 decays to N14.
A well known nuclear reaction that most have heard of directly or indirectly is know as "Carbon dating". This dating method to determine age for anything that has some Carbon in it can be used because Carbon in the atmosphere contains a little bit Carbon 14 that is created due to cosmic radiation impact on the molecules that make up our air. Normally Carbon has 12 Protons in its structure.
The C14 decays into Nitrogen 14 whereby a so called "extra neutron" changes into a proton and an electron that takes its place in the outer 'orbital'.
The 2 extra “neutrons” have changed into a “neutron-proton” pair as is depicted below. This in turn means the element # has increased by one, becoming Nitrogen.
The numbers: in classical terms.
C14 (6P 6e 8N) → N14 (7P 7e 7N)
So one neutron became an Proton electron pair (N --> P + e)
The numbers: in SAM terms.
C14 (14 protons, 8 inner electrons, 6 outer electrons) --> N14 (14 protons, 7 inner electrons, 7 outer electrons)
So one inner electron becomes an outer electron due to the creation of another 'neutron pair'
Carbon 14 with 2 extra "neutrons" / proton-electron pair is shown here. When there is an initiation such as a photon it can cause the 2 neutrons to meet and form a new tetrahedron an in the process 'boot out' one of the 2 inner electrons which takes its place in the orbital structure.
Nitrogen 14 shows the reaction product from Carbon 14. The Carbon nuclet is now opened up and it has the so called 'gap'.
Why does carbon 14 beta decay? I believe beta decay occurs when neutrino passes through the interior of nucleus. In SAM, electrons are not in close contact with protons. SAM can not explain the mechanism of beta decay.
We are currently working to explain why elements decay the way they do and we are making a lot of progress. Expect some articles on the subject in the near future.
Carbon 14 decays because of an excess of negative charge due to the extra neutrons. We do believe beta decay is initiated by an external influence - possibly a neutrino, if neutrinos actually exist. We view the neutrino as being some type of energy, not necessarily a particle.
Hi, thank you for your quick reply.
I already found mecanism of beta decay.
In my expectation, protons and electrons inside the nucleus need to be in close contact with each other.
> We view the neutrino as being some type of energy, not necessarily a particle.
yes, neutrino is not particle. I think neutrino is pulse of electric field. I wrote some articles about it on this site. We also need to rethink electromagnetics. Reviewing the propagation of electromagnetic waves can also explain quantum leap well.
I am looking forward to your new post.
Do you have an automated software that can determine the nuclear structures for the whole periodic table of elements using a simple algorithm?
The short answer is: No!
Yet there are simple rules or algorithms underlying the build-up of the elements, or rather a certain logic is applied.
The nucleus is like a fixed blueprint that is trying to complete itself accordingly. Meaning that the elements are essentially fixed stable configurations or a partly grown blueprint with A number of protons.
The first and most important rule is that the protons are densest packed according to the nuclets i.e. Deuteron, Lithium, Carbon (2,7,12) and all other elements are a combination of these.
There are simply too many exception and balancing acts that breaks the asked algorithm, although I agree that one would expect that. The reality I think is shown in SAM and that it is in essence very simply but quickly becomes complex when the structure grows. I like this aspect of SAM personally very much, because all these exceptions in actuality reflect or are reflected in the Periodic Table of the Elements.
Thanks for the reply,
I'm writing a computer program that takes an input isotope (protons + inner electrons) and then outputs all possible carbon backbone and nuclet configurations along with calculated SAM lines and geometrical structures in 2D (and later 3D).
By studying many examples in the 3D viewer I've figured out most parts of the algorithm.
[Edit: I've completed most of the program now, so I'll just shorten my question]
When I create a carbon backbone and want to assign nuclets to the structure (Li, Be, B, 5_end, 4_end, 2_end), I need to know exactly how many inner electrons to use for the nuclets that attach to the carbon structures. How do I determine how many inner electrons are used for a carbon backbone, and hence how many remain for the nuclets? This is important because a difference of just 1 more/less inner electron in the outer nuclets completely changes the combinations of nuclets you can have.
If you are indeed successful in creating that reversed nuclet structure building, then the outcome 'should be' that most elements have no viable constructs other then the one showing now. There are for sure more combinations possible in the structural sense, however other correlations such as valence then are incorrect.
Creating and showing all possible structures though is an important task and as such on our list of things to do.
ps. The number of inner electrons (equal to the old number of "neutrons") is straightforward in the first few rows of the PTE.
Around Silicon and Calcium the number starts to deviate from what we assign the elements at the moment as accepted numbers. This is however a whole different topic of the ratio of "neutrons", meaning inner electrons and the number of protons and we think that we are to discover some more important clues which may lead to a different insight in the ratio of P and N (inner electrons).
Keep me posted please.
Last comment I'll make for a while hehe, about to finish holidays, it's been fun learning about SAM.
Creating and showing all possible structures is something on your to-do list and it's something I've now done (no 3d viewing program though, but I could export the data in a format that works with your 3D viewer). I've graphed the binding energies for all structures, for all elements up to Z=64, here's the results:
If you happen to know a clear, step by step algorithm to deduce which structure is the correct one out of all the structure combinations then please let me know and I'll automate it too. I know you've mentioned there are many exceptions, if I get a list of rules and exceptions then I'll try my best. At the very least the 'really wrong' structures could be automatically filtered out, leaving just a few possibilities for humans to select from.