Nuclets - Building Blocks of the Nucleus
The Structured Atom Model postulates that atoms are built in a tree-like fashion from clusters of protons. When we first started talking about SAM we needed a name for these clusters and came up with the word 'nuclet'.
A nuclet is a densely packed geometrically arranged cluster of protons that combine together with other nuclets to create the nucleus of the atom.
The nuclets are named after the element where they first appear. This naming convention is similar to how we name the groups or columns of the periodic table. For example carbon is the first element in the 14th column so we call that column the "Carbon group".
Nuclets can be divided into 3 categories - building blocks, building phase, capping phase.
The 8 elements in the second row of the periodic table - Lithium, Beryllium, Boron, Nitrogen, Oxygen. Fluorine and Neon - are each composed of a single Nuclet in various stages of growth. This growth pattern results in the valence pattern of 8 ---- +1, +2, +3, +/-4, -3, -2, -1, 0. Neon, the last element in the row is inert because the nuclet is complete.
The 8 elements of the third row of the periodic table - Sodium through Argon - start and complete the growth of the second nuclet. The last element in the row, Argon, is inert because it consists of two completed nuclets.
The 18 elements of the fourth row of the periodic table - Potassium through Krypton - are more complex because as the atom branches it creates more possibilities for where the atom can grow. This is the reason there are a large number of transition metals. The last element, Krypton, is inert because it is the completion of 5 nuclets.
Deuterium and Helium are thought to be the basic building blocks of atoms. When a deuterium is added to an existing atom it will always form a tetrahedron with two protons (another deuterium) that are already in the nucleus.
Deuterium - 2 protons - 1 inner electron
The deuterium atom is the most basic building block. Unlike a free 'neutron' it can exist by itself as it is stable. Within the atom it always combines with 2 additional protons to complete a tetrahedron.
Helium - Tetrahedron
Helium - 4 protons - 2 inner electrons
The tetrahedron is the first platonic solid. It is densely packed which means all faces are triangular and the protons are as close together as possible. The tetrahedron is found throughout the nucleus. Anytime a proton is added to the nucleus it must form a tetrahedron with protons already in the nucleus.
The helium nucleus is also called the alpha particle and is known to be the product of alpha decay.
The smallest nuclet is the lithium nucleus and has 1 ring of five protons with 1 or 2 protons in the center of the ring. The next two stages are the beryllium and boron nuclets which are intermediate steps and are really intertwined lithium nuclets. The shape transforms with carbon into an icosahedron, one of the 5 platonic solids. The growth of a nuclet from the lithium state to carbon is called the building phase.
Lithium - Pentagonal Bi-Pyramid
Lithium - 7 protons - 4 inner electrons
Lithium is the first solid element. It has one ring of 5 protons which give it a valence of 1.
Lithium 7 is the preferred isotope with 92.4% abundance. Lithium 6 is 7.6% abundant and is the same structure shown except 1 proton is missing and is an incomplete structure.
Beryllium - 9 protons - 5 inner electrons
Beryllium is essentially 2 lithium nuclets that are intertwined which gives it a valence of 1 or 2.
Boron - 11 protons - 6 inner electrons
Boron is essentially 3 intertwined lithium nuclets which give it a valence of 3.
Nature prefers Boron 11 (80%) over Boron 10 (20%). This is because the Boron 11 is a more balanced structure.
Carbon 12 - Icosahedron
Carbon - 12 protons - 6 inner electrons
Carbon is a perfect icosahedron which is one of the five platonic solids. It can be thought of as 12 intertwining rings of 5 protons which implies rotation. However close analysis shows only 4 rings can be active at any time without collisions between the rings. This is thought to be why carbon has a valence of +4/+2/-4.
Now that a perfect icosahedron has been created with carbon it has to be broken to continue building. As protons are added the icosahedron is distorted slightly as the new protons form small tetrahedrons that dominate the structure. These new protons cap the valence rings formed in the building phase. Once all valence rings are capped the nuclet is said to have a neutral ending. This means it is no longer chemically reactive. The first time time this happens is with the element neon.
Adding two protons forms (green) a tetrahedron with the protons already in the nucleus. This tetrahedron distorts the icosahedron a little and a gap opens in the top of the icosahedron. The new tetrahedron caps one of the four valence rings.
Adding four protons caps both valence rings on one side of the atom. This makes that side of the atom chemically non-reactive or neutral.
The preferred isotope for fluorine has three additional protons instead of two. It is theorized the additional proton is required to balance the nucleus. The new protons cap another valence ring.
Neon - Neutral Ending - Backbone Nuclet
Neon is when all four of the valence rings have been capped. This is what makes neon an inert or noble gas. We also call this a neutral ending.
This structure is also called the backbone. It is the primary building block of larger atoms. These are combined together in a tree-like fashion with this structure making the spine of the atom. Only the endings of the branches are different.
the 5 neutral ending is an intermediate structure between a normal neutral ending and the lithium nuclet.
This ending deserves more research as it is suspected as being able to capture protons, or Hydrogen ions?!
The ending is also needing in structural integrety whenever there is an opposing nuclet where by the 5 ending is needed to stabilize the parent nuclet (balancing)
I find nothing in this site about mass defect, the difference between the measured mass of a nucleus to its expcected mass from the sum of its particles.
I analyzed this behavior through the entire periodic table.
Nearly all elements have a deficit, where measured is less than expected.
There are only two exceptions, where measured is greater than expected. Neon is at about +0.0232 and chrlorine is at about +0.1721
If the SAM team has yet to consider mass defect, would someone be interested in my analysis?
Good question, and thank you for this comment.
We do address much more than can (at this moment) be found on this website. We are in the process of describing many physics phenomenon, such as the Binding Energy and the mass-defect pointed out here.
The mass-defect is a result of the expected (calculated) masses of the individual particles and the measured mass. We cannot answer yet what gives mass to particles of atoms, but what we can say is that we have come up with a way to calculate the binding energy for any isotope/atom. The key point we always see in these matters is that the denser a nucleus is packed (relative, just like the mass-defect) the more binding energy the nucleus has. That means that depending on the structure there is more or less BE expelled and as we know, E=mc2, that leads to less mass we measure in the remaining nucleus.
There is a whole lot to say in this matter and that is exactly what we are working on. We hope to have a complete picture of these topics in about 6 months from now for all to see and study and comment on. We ask your patience until that time.
An analysis would surely be interesting to compare to our findings. We can be reached on the e-mail account email@example.com and James@etherealmatters.org.
Carbon on its own as an atom has a total of 12 electrons spread across 20 surfaces.
icosahedron - dodecahedron.
20 triangular surfaces that represent the electron spots (inner or outer) is what causes chemistry.
20 triangles minus 12 protons yields 8 spots left.
chemical connections are mutual or per pair (sandard stuff)
8 / 2 = 4 connections
1 building block deuterium is 2 electron 1 inner 1 outer
per capping we loose 2 electron or 1 connection / valence spot.
I don't know if it's appropriate to comment on these pages, so feel free to delete if you want to.
My first thought is that I don't see a proton and a neutron (proton/electron pair), instead I see two protons and an electron with a net positive charge of 1. I think it is meaningless to say one is a proton and one a neutron. It seems like they both have half of their charge balanced.
You are correct in you conclusion. The proton and electron cancel each other out if you will or at least that is how we can look at it.
This is why we call in this model all nucleons a proton, hence the neutron is a connection. See the "new neutron" page. However because we can witness (shortly) the free 'neutron' and because it is capable of reacting with another nucleus it is convenient to speak of this. more correct would be a "proton" or a "proton connected to an electron"
We are in the process of publishing more pages to add to the explanation and this is one of them. The proton and 'neutron' will be explained and we hope to be able to show the electrons better in a future version of the atomizer. The pages will more content dealing with these topics will be available in the near future as we will release them when they are ready.
At the moment the model as we see here is focused on the proton structure.
We ask for everyone's patience and understanding that this is "work in progress".
Hi, I think your theory is fantastic! Actually I was thinking about something similar.
I was thinking about Faraday's electric lines of force. Electric flux lines are said to neutralize plus and minus, but it is a mistake. Electric flux lines are not neutralized.
I want to think about a static atomic model. Please tell me your opinion.
Thank you for your response and I look forward to the future pages.
My current question is why and how do the "orbital" electrons maintain their distance from the nucleus? Of course this is a huge question in the standard model too, requiring a range of anti-Occam properties.
SAM is a very epoch-making idea. It will be verified by many researchers from now on.
I have one question.
As atomic number increases from Helium to Lithium, atomic radius rapidly increases. How can you explain this?
Atomic Structure Theory
A positively charged core with a negatively charged core-shell, and a floating negatively charged outer shell that is constantly oscillating at the radius direction due to the attraction force from the core and the repulsion force from the core-shell, and the formation energy co-existed with the atom.
Facts we know so far are:
1. Atom must be able to attract other atoms in order to form into matter.
2. Atoms must have a solidly incompressible surface to be able to form into solid matter.
3. Hardest matter is formed from atoms that have the strongest attraction force/bounding force.
4. Atom carries the oscillating electrostatic force/heat/thermal energy, so it must have moving parts that can carry kinetic energy and potential energy.
5. At room temperature, gas matter atoms repel each other. Liquid matter atoms attract each other weakly. Solid matter atoms attract each other strongly.
6. Temperature is a property of the matter, it is proportional to the AC voltage of the matter. All matters are formed from atoms, all atoms are constantly oscillating and carrying alternating electrostatic force. The current flow direction is the heat flow direction. Thus the second law of thermodynamics.
1. What are the nuclets that combine to form Silver.
2 Which of these nuclets can you postulate has the weakest bond
3. If the proton is a spherical emf surrounding a minute plasmoid (Magnetic overcoming the dielectric pulse in a radiation wave at highest energy to form the proton)then the platonic shapes would be formed by these spherical boundaries sharing boundaries. This is the case with water bubbles with the boundary shapes formed are the platonic shapes. The Electron could be the gain or loss of energy in the form of a vibration in the ether.
It would be interesting to play around with a nested icosa-dodecahedron in this model. Ie one inside the other. Super high symmetry and *might* follow the densest packing principle??