ICCF22 - Nuclear Transmutations and Mass Defect

ICCF22 - Nuclear Transmutations and Mass Defect

Book page - 4 years 7 months ago



p44> Nuclear fission is a breaking-off of a part of the nucleus, leaving the fission products with less stress-energy. This is also reflected in the asymmetrical fission products.

Do you think the cause of beta decay is Stress Energy? But it cannot explain that beta decay changes with neutrino density.

Evidence for Correlations Between Nuclear Decay Rates and Earth-Sun Distance

According to SAM, when tritium is beta decayed, it becomes helium-3.

Comparing the masses of tritium and helium 3,

3H+ → 5.00736 x 10^-27kg
3He - 2e → 5.006416 x 10^-27kg

Helium 3 is light. Is this a mass defect?
I think that tritium is bonded by three electrons, and if one of them is broken, beta decay into helium-3.

Stress Energy will certainly exist. I think that the amount of electrons that combine into the proton will change depending on the Stress Energy. However, beta decay is a stochastic phenomenon and depends on neutrino density. It is more reasonable to think that tritium is bonded by three electrons.

You seem to be adamant to swap H3 and He3.

He3 has 1 inner electron / 1 neutron in the nucleus in conventional terms. That is why we depict the H3 as a linear shape which is basically 2 intertwined Deuterons.

A linear structure for He3 cannot work therefore, since 1 proton would not be bound in that state and leave the nucleus. This is not what we observe.

So He3 is the triangular and the H3 is the linear structure and not how you depict them here.


You are not answering about the mass difference between 3H and 3He.

If 3H is linear shape, why are three protons that have lost one electron grouped into a triangle?

Also, why does one electron move to the center of the three protons?

These are unnatural.


I love the simplicity and concept of the SAM model, can you please explain what I'm misunderstanding in the ICCF22 poster papers (2019).

On page 33 of Nuclear transmutations and mass defect (ICCF22 Assisi, Italy 2019) there is a Neon 20 binding energy calculation:
- 73 lines * 2.225MeV = 162MeV.
Where do the 73 lines come from? When you count the lines in your 3d structure program, I keep getting 60 lines?

[EDIT: removed first question about energies, i figured that part out ]

Thanks heaps :)

Very good question!

The first Carbon nuclet (12 spheres) which can be considered the core of the heavier elements (above Carbon) has a fixed number of lines in the model. This number is 41 lines, even though when we count the lines that can be drawn between the proton we come up with 30 lines in total.
The thing that makes this seemingly un-logical is the fact that some connection lines actually disappear when the nucleus grows towards the Carbon nuclet. The best way to see this is looking at Lithium where we see the upper and lower opposing protons no longer touching each other, hence the line is broken due to the morphing of the structure.
A Nitrogen atom would have the base Carbon of 41 lines + the number of lines that are added to the base, 41 + 7 = 48. Take note that the number of added lines of connections is actually 8 (4 per nucleon), however the keen observer will note that the base Carbon at this point breaks one of its connections also (8-1=7). see Carbon and Nitrogen differences in the Builder.https://etherealmatters.org/atomizer/atom-viewer

I understand this is far from a complete answer, yet I hope to have given enough to point out the complexity of this whole topic. That was the purpose (more or less) of the presentation, to give a more simple and clear picture in order to be able to 'tackle' this horrible difficult topic that is connected to so much other fundamental physics.

So, the number of lines (which are simply the connections between the protons in the nucleus) varies due to the morphing geometry. Adding one proton usually means three extra lines of connection, but!! sometimes is is more, and sometimes others break at the same time. The broken lines seem to reflect a partial binding energy still. This is one of the observations we take into account in trying to improve the understanding and calculus of the Binding Energy. So the number of lines is not a minimum fixed quanta of energy or charge. It seems to be distant related, which makes total sense....
A broken connection line can still have the protons very close to each other, meaning it is no longer the used 2.225 MeV, but perhaps 1.3 MeV as an example.

We have a complete list of the number of lines and they can also be seen in the builder with each element e.g. Iron  https://etherealmatters.org/atomizer/atom-viewer  (click on the "iron 56" in the top left menu).

Last comment I would like to make, which was also made during the presentation, is that this is not a claim to have the final understanding and ability to calculate the BE precisely. This was an attempt to find the logic related to the structure, which we think is quite strongly proven in this presentation.

My personal view and thinking is that the current understanding of what an atom or nucleus is, is very very far of what is seems to be in actuality. The detail emerging from SAM offers us all a chance to open this field of research and increase our understanding enormously.

Hope this helps,



Thankyou for the quick reply Edo :)
I didn't know you could click on the isotope name and get that data! That'll come in handy :) The 3D atom-viewer is very good to use, well done to the programmer. Non discrete binding energies makes sense.
I'm quite interested to see how well this model matches types of experimental data, particularly in areas that current models don't offer good predictions in like asymmetrical fission. If there really is structure somewhat like you describe then this could lead to some very exciting times in physics and other sciences.