The Cycle of Eight

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The Cycle of Eight

Book page - 1 year 4 months ago

The Periodic Table of Elements (PTE) shows a regularity that has been pointed out since it inception, the recurring cycle of 8.  This cycle was given the name "Law of Octaves" by J.A.R. Newlands in 1865. He noticed that when elements are arranged by increasing weight, every 8th element had similar properties. He suggested this resembled the 8 notes of the musical scale, hence the name law of octaves. This discovery led to further advancements of the PTE.  

Both the 2nd and 3rd row of the periodic table have 8 elements. The valence for the elements in the 2nd row from left to right follows the cycle of eight (1, 2, 3, 4/-4, -3, -2, -1, 0). This is because they are made from one nuclet, the structure must follow this cycle. In the third row the first 4 elements follow the cycle of eight, however phosphorous and sulfur deviate from the pattern. This is because the elements in the 3rd row are composed of 2 nuclets which means there are now 2 places where nuclets can grow. The atoms grow on both places and this results in the deviation.

For example Oxygen is so different from the other elements in the 'Oxygen group" that it's often left out when characterizing that group. Growth appears to prefer the nuclet growing phase over the capping phase as discussed here. This explains why most of the elements are metals and why a diagonal line crosses the PTE between the transition metals and non-metals.

Wikpedia i states the following:

The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table. This group is also known as the oxygen family. It consists of the elements oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and the radioactiveelement polonium (Po). The chemically uncharacterized synthetic element livermorium (Lv) is predicted to be a chalcogen as well.[1] Often, oxygen is treated separately from the other chalcogens, sometimes even excluded from the scope of the term "chalcogen" altogether, due to its very different chemical behavior from sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium. - Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalcogen.

Starting with the 4th row of the PTE we have the transition metals. As the nucleus gets larger and has even more branches the number of growing points increases even more, the cycle of 8 gets lost in all the complexity. This explains the wide diversity found in the transition metals.

Valence Row 2 of PTE Row 3 of PTE
+1
Lithium

Lithium 7

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Missing content item.
Sodium

Sodium 23

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+2
Beryllium

Beryllium 9

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Magnesium

Magnesium 24

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+3
Boron

Boron 11

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Aluminum
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+4/-4
Carbon

Carbon 12

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Silicon

Silicon 28

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-3
Nitrogen

Nitrogen 14

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Phosphorous

Phosphorus 31

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-2
Oxygen

Oxygen 16

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