The SAM Theory

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The SAM Theory

Book page - 10 months ago

The Nucleus is Structured

Niels Bohr: “We are all agreed that your theory is crazy. The question which divides us is whether it is crazy enough to have a chance of being correct."

There has to be an organization to the nucleus of the atom! There are simply too many hints and leads that cannot be ignored that show this to be true. When we search for an answer to how the nucleus is organized, we can find no real answers at all. Only that the nucleus is made up of neutrons and protons and is held together by the mysterious Strong force. How these protons and nucleons fit together is officially still a mystery.

Quantum Mechanics offers few answers, except that we will never know the physical structure of the nucleus. Our understanding of the nucleus is limited to its mathematical properties.  Quantum Mechanics is focused on what protons, neutrons and electrons are made of.  The mathematics of QM has been shown to be very precise, but QM does not answer some of the very basic questions about the atom and the elements.  

The Structured Atom Model (SAM) fills in this gap.  SAM's focus is to explain how the nucleus is organized and how the resulting structure is reflected in the Periodic Table.

Current theory posits that the electrons orbiting the nucleus determine the nature of an element - this is because current theory has no concept of a structure to the nucleus.  SAM will show that it is the shape of the nucleus that determines the orbitals of electrons and the properties of the elements.

SAM will allow us to answer questions we've never been able to address adequately, such as:

  • Why are the noble gases inert?
  • Why does valence follow a pattern of -- 0, 1, 2, 3, 4/-4, -3, -2, -1, 0
  • Why do metals conduct electricity?
  • Why are there no atoms with 5 or 8 nucleons?
  • How do atoms grow and divide in nuclear fusion and fission processes?
  • Why are some elements rare?
  • Why are the larger atoms unstable?
  • Why is H2O a bi-polar molecule?
  • Does elemental transmutation occur here on Earth in geological and biological processes?

These are just a few of the more significant questions. There are many more that SAM can answer.

This is not an abstract mathematical theory, only understood by scientists with advanced mathematics degrees and years of study.  It's a physical model you can build with inexpensive spherical magnets.  I have taught young children parts of the theory and showed them how to build an atom such as Neon.  They can hold it in their hand, study it, and marvel at its beauty - I know I do.  When I met Edo in the summer of 2016, my chemistry was pretty weak.  Now I can visualize atoms in my mind and I know what element it is simply by looking at them.  I now understand much of the periodic table.  SAM has made Chemistry fun again!



I wrote an article explaining how I understand your theory so far. I gave links back to this site and tried my best to give an even handed review and explanation. I'm sure I got some stuff wrong. But I thought it might help you get some views and present the idea to open minded people. Here's the link to my content on Steemit (unfortunately the only construction toys I have on hand are not like your magnets).


I like what you are doing there, the depictions follow what we are trying to convey!

There is quite a bit of work to be done, and many pages that deal with this are in the making. As to the magnets, they can be used without the space-holders even, meaning one can recreate the element with spherical (di-polar) magnets only. Trying to depict where the electrons are is not so easy with mechanical tools and i love your attempt there!, Software is probably the solution there. In the future we hope to implement the ability to show where the electrons are in the "Atomizer viewer".